Children in detention in the justice system: Europe

CRIN has compiled information published on the number of child offenders detained in the criminal justice system to highlight the information available as well as the gaps. All sources used in the compilation of this information are referenced and links are included. If you are aware of any errors or inaccuracies in this information, please contact us at info@crin.org.

   

    Albania

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional centres rose by more than 200 percent between 2003 and 2011, but has shown a generally downward trend since.

2003: 37 (3.5 per 100,000)

2004: 22 (2.1 per 100,000)

2005: 16 (1.6 per 100,000)

2006: 28 (2.9 per 100,000)

2007: 11 (1.2 per 100,000)

2008: 87 (10 per 100,000)

2009: 88 (10.6 per 100,000)

2010: 100 (12.6 per 100,000)

2011: 121 (15.8 per 100,000)

2012: 97 (13.1 per 100,000)

2013: 107 (14.8 per 100,000)

2014: 87 (12.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Andorra

Figures published by UNODC for the period between 2007 and 2014, indicate that no child was detained in a prison, penal institution or correctional centre with the exception of in 2011, when two children were detained.
 

    Austria

Figures published by UNODC show a rapid decline in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2009 and 2014, during which the figures more than halved.

2005: 181 (11.3 per 100,000)

2006: 221 (13.9 per 100,000)

2007: 142 (8.9 per 100,000)

2008: 170 (10.8 per 100,000)

2009: 186 (12 per 100,000)

2010: 173 (11.3 per 100,000)

2011; 163 (10.7 per 100,000)

2012: 124 8.2 per 100,000)

2013: 103 (6.9 per 100,000)

2014: 80 (5.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Belarus

Figures published by UNODC show a rapid decline in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2003 and 2014.

2003: 722 (34.4 per 100,000)

2004: 569 (28.1 per 100,000)

2005: 525 (26.9 per 100,000)

2006: 560 (29.5 per 100,000)

2007: 604 (32.7 per 100,000)

2008: 386 (21.4 per 100,000)

2009: 269 (15.2 per 100,000)

2010: 178 (10.2 per 100,000)

2011: 131 (7.5 per 100,000)

2012: 77 (4.4 per 100,000)

2013: 78 (4.5 per 100,000)

2014: 88 (5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Belgium

The World Prison Brief reports that as of September 2013, 0.6 percent of the prison population were under the age of 18. If this proportion were stable, it would mean that in 2014, 71 children were detained in prisons as defined by the World Prison Brief.
 

    Bosnia and Herzegovina

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions has remained reasonably stable between 2010 and 2013, showing a slight increase.

2010: 31 (4.5 per 100,000)

2011: 30 (4.3 per 100,000)

2012: not reported

2013: 39 (5.8 per 100,000)

2014: 28 (4.3 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Bulgaria

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions has show a general downward trend since 2003.

2003: 138 (9.7 per 100,000)

2004: 152 (11 per 100,000)

2005: 131 (9.8 per 100,000)

2006: 104 (8 per 100,000)

2007: 94 (7.4 per 100,000)

2008: 75 (6 per 100,000)

2009: 58 (4.7 per 100,000)

2010: 73 (6 per 100,000)

2011: 89 (7.3 per 100,000)

2012: 75 (6.2 per 100,000)

2013: 78 (6.5 per 100,000)

2014: 63 (5.3 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Croatia

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Croatia have fell sharply between 2003 and 2006 but began to rise again to 2013.

2003: 128 (14.4 per 100,000)

2004: 113 (13 per 100,000)

2005: 110 (12.9 per 100,000)

2006: 26 (3.1 per 100,000)

2007: 47 (5.7 per 100,000)

2008: 41 (5 per 100,000)

2009: 64 (7.9 per 100,000)

2010: 39 (4.8 per 100,000)

2011: 55 (6.8 per 100,000)

2012: 68 (8.5 per 100,000)

2013: 83 (10.4 per 100,000)

2014: 70 (8.9 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Cyprus

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Cyprus have fluctuated since 2004.

2004: 33 (13 per 100,000)

2005: 41 (16.3 per 100,000)

2006: 47 (18.7 per 100,000)

2007 20 (7.9 per 100,000)

2008: 28 (11.2 per 100,000)

2009: 28 (11.3  per 100,000)

2010: 14 (5.7 per 100,000)

2011: 16 (6.6 per 100,000)

2012: 26 (10.7 per 100,000)

2013: 37 (15.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.~
 

    Czech Republic

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in the Czech Republic fluctuated between 2004 and 2010, but since 2010 has steadily fallen.

2004: 181 (9.4 per 100,000)

2005: 188 (9.9 per 100,000)

2006: 170 (9 per 100,000)

2007: 168 (9 per 100,000)

2008: 213 (11.4 per 100,000)

2009: 165 (8.9 per 100,000)

2010: 208 (11.3 per 100,000)

2011: 205 (11.1 per 100,000)

2012: 172 (9.4 per 100,000)

2013: 113 (6.2 per 100,000)

2014: 107 (5.8 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Denmark

Figures published by UNODC show a fluctuation in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2003 to 2014, but generally low level of detention of children.

2003: 8 (0.7 per 100,000)

2004: 7 (0.6 per 100,000)

2005: 20 (1.7 per 100,000)

2006: 18 (1.5 per 100,000)

2007: 25 (2.1 per 100,000)

2008: 9 (0.7 per 100,000)

2009: 20 (1.6 per 100,000)

2010: 17 (1.4 per 100,000)

2011: 9 (0.7 per 100,000)

2012: 7 (0.6 per 100,000)

2013: 12 (1 per 100,000)

2014: 9 (0.8 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Estonia

Figures published by UNODC show a fluctuation in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Estonia between 2003 to 2014.

2003: 46 (16.3 per 100,000)

2004: 55 (20 per 100,000)

2005: 37 (13.9 per 100,000)

2006: 41 (15.8 per 100,000)

2007: 71 (27.9 per 100,000)

2008: 52 (20.8 per 100,000)

2009: 34 (13.8 per 100,000)

2010: 43 (17.6 per 100,000)

2011: 29 (11.9 per 100,000)

2012: 36 (14.9 per 100,000)

2013: 33 (13.7 per 100,000)

2014: 33 (13.7 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Finland

Figures published by UNODC show a fluctuation in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Finland between 2003 and 2014.

2003: 101 (9.1 per 100,000)

2004: 96 (8.7 per 100,000)

2005: 92 (8.3 per 100,000)

2006: 97 (8.8 per 100,000)

2007: 78 (7.1 per 100,000)

2008: 93 (8.5 per 100,000)

2009: 102 (9.3 per 100,000)

2010: 73 (6.7 per 100,000)

2011: 71 (6.6 per 100,000)

2012: 87 (8.1 per 100,000)

2013: 82 (7.6 per 100,000)

2014: 101 (9.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    France

Figures published by UNODC show a slight fluctuation in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional centres in France between 2007 and 2014, but that the number of children detained in these facilities has remained at similar levels.

2007: 724 (5.3 per 100,000)

2008: 675 (4.9 per 100,000)

2009: 669 (4.8 per 100,000)

2010: 692 (5 per 100,000)

2011: 712 (5.1 per 100,000)

2012: 724 (5.2 per 100,000)

2013: 731 (5.2 per 100,000)

2014: 704 (5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Greece

Figures published by UNODC show a general upward trend in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Greece between 2007 and 2012, but a sharp reduction between 2012 and 2014.

2007: 434 (21.8 per 100,000)

2008: 531 (26.7 per 100,000)

2009: 510 (25.7 per 100,000)

2010: 568 (28.7 per 100,000)

2011: 587 (29.8 per 100,000)

2012: 600 (30,7 per 100,000)

2013: 452 (23.4 per 100,000)

2014: 358 (18.7 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Hungary

Figures published by UNODC show fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Hungary between 2004 and 2014, but the numbers of children detained in these centres is at a similar level to ten years ago.

2004: 448 (22.7 per 100,000)

2005: 483 (24.9 per 100,000)

2006: 468 (24.4 per 100,000)

2007: 444 (23.4 per 100,000)

2008: 531 (28.4 per 100,000)

2009: 512 (27.8 per 100,000)

2010: 561 (30.9 per 100,000)

2011: 524 (29.2 per 100,000)

2012: 514 (29.1 per 100,000)

2013: 478 (27.3 per 100,000)

2014: 424 (24.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Iceland

Figures published by UNODC indicate that between 2004 and 2013, Iceland detained between 0 and two children at any given time in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions.

2004: 0 (0 per 100,000)

2005: 2 (2.5 per 100,000)

2006: 1 (1.3 per 100,000)

2007:1 (1.3 per 100,000)

2008: 2 (2.5 per 100,000)

2009: 2 (2.5 per 100,000)

2010: 0 (0 per 100,000)

2011: 2 (2.5 per 100,000)

2012: 1 (1.2 per 100,000)

2013: 2 (2.5 per 100,000)

2014: not reported

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Ireland

Figures published by UNODC show a substantial decline in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions, or correctional institutions in Ireland between 2003 and 2014.

2003: 43 (4.3 per 100,000)

2004: 59 (5.8 per 100,000)

2005: not reported

2006: not reported

2007: 56 (5.3 per 100,000)

2008: 46 (4.3 per 100,000)

2009: 49 (5 per 100,000)

2010: 34 (4.4 per 100,000)

2011: 34 (3 per 100,000)

2012: 23 (2 per 100,000)

2013: 8 (0.7 per 100,000)

2014: 12 (1 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Italy

Figures published by UNODC show a sharp increase in the number of children detained in prison, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Italy between 2003 and 2011, after which the number of children in detention began to fall.

2003: 756 (7.6 per 100,000)

2004: 835 (8.4 per 100,000)

2005: 892 (8.9 per 100,000)

2006: 789 (7.9 per 100,000)

2007: 1,004 (10 per 100,000)

2008: 1,157 (11.5 per 100,000)

2009: 1,207 (12 per 100,000)

2010: 1,301 (12.9 per 100,000)

2011: 1,428 (14.2 per 100,000)

2012: 1,401 (14  per 100,000)

2013: 1,312 (13.2 per 100,000)

2014: 1,122 (11.3 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Kosovo

Figures produced by UNODC show that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Kosovo have fluctuated slightly, but remained relatively stable between 2011 and 2014.

2011: 43 (7.2 per 100,000)

2012: 55 (9.3 per 100,000)

2013: 41 (6.9 per 100,000)

2014: 41 (7 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Latvia

Figures published by UNODC show a sharp downward trend in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions, or correctional institutions between 2003 and 2014, during which the population of these facilities fell by almost 90 percent.

2003: 373 (79.4 per 100,000)

2004: 320 (71.1 per 100,000)

2005: 304 (70.6 per 100,000)

2006: 241 (58 per 100,000)

2007: 254 (63.4 per 100,000)

2008: 248 (64 per 100,000)

2009: 189 (50.2 per 100,000)

2010: 88 (23.9 per 100,000)

2011: 68 (19 per 100,000)

2012: 55 (15.8 per 100,000)

2013: 46 (13.5 per 100,000)

2014: 38 (11.3 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Liechtenstein

Figures published by UNODC show that at the time the annual statistics were reported no children were held in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions with the exception of in 2010, when one child was detained.
 

    Lithuania

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions and correctional institutions in Lithuania showed an upward trend between 2002 and 2008, followed by a significant reduction up to 2014.

2003: 119 (15.4 per 100,000)

2004: 184 (24.7 per 100,000)

2005: 179 (24.9 per 100,000)

2006: 171 (24.8 per 100,000)

2007: 192 (28.9 per 100,000)

2008: 200 (31.3 per 100,000)

2009: 188 (30.5 per 100,000)

2010: 158 (26.6 per 100,000)

2011: 130 (22.8 per 100,000)

2012: 112 (20.4 per 100,000)

2013: 89 (16.7 per 100,000)

2014: 84 (16.2 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Luxembourg

Figures published by UNODC indicate that between 2006 and 2013, the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Luxembourg fluctuated between one and eight.

2006: 8 (7.8 per 100,000)

2007: 6 (5.8 per 100,000)

2008: 5 (4.8 per 100,000)

2009: 5 (4.7 per 100,000)

2010: 7 (6.5 per 100,000)

2011: 7 (6.4 per 100,000)

2012: 1 (0.9 per 100,000)

2013: 4 (3.6 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

Figures published by UNODC show a significant rise in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Macedonia between 2003 and 2009, though the number then fell slightly up to 2011. UNODC has not published detention figures for children in Macedonia since 2011.

2003: 17 (3.2 per 100,000)

2004: 17 (3.3 per 100,000)

2005: 55 (10.8 per 100,000)

2006: 49 (9.8 per 100,000)

2007: not reported

2008: 62 (12.9 per 100,000)

2009: 70 (14.8 per 100,000)

2010: 65 (14 per 100,000)

2011: 63 (13.8 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Malta

Figures published by UNODC show a sharp rise in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2003 and 2010 a trend that has gradually reversed towards 2014.

2003: 1 (1.1 per 100,000)

2004: 4 (4.4 per 100,000)

2005: 18 (20.4 per 100,000)

2006: 23 (26.6 per 100,000)

2007: 23 (26.9 per 100,000)

2008: 31 (36.5 per 100,000)

2009: 29 (34.3 per 100,000)

2010: 34 (40.6 per 100,000)

2011: 28 (34 per 100,000)

2012: 32 (39.6 per 100,000)

2013: 13 (16.4 per 100,000)

2014: 14 (18.1 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Moldova, Republic of

Figures published by UNODC show a sustained downward trend in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Moldova between 2005 and 2014, a decrease of more than 70 percent during that period.

2005: 210 (20.7 per 100,000)

2006: 214 (21.9 per 100,000)

2007: 152 (16.1 per 100,000)

2008: 83 (9.1 per 100,000)

2009: 91 (10.3 per 100,000)

2010: 97 (11.3 per 100,000)

2011: 98 (11.7 per 100,000)

2012: 85 (10.4 per 100,000)

2013: 75 (9.4 per 100,000)

2014: 59 (7.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Monaco

Figures published by UNODC show a fluctuation in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Monaco between 2004 and 2013, ranging from no children to seven. While the population of these facilities remains low in terms of the number of children detained, the rate of detention can be much higher than other countries across Europe.

2004: 5 (100.1 per 100,000)

2005: 0 (0 per 100,000)

2006: 4 (80.7 per 100,000)

2007: 1 (20.5 per 100,000)

2008: 2 (42 per 100,000)

2009: 1 (21.2 per 100,000)

2010: 0 (0 per 100,000)

2011: 4 (86.4 per 100,000)

2012: 7 (153.3 per 100,000)

2013: 3 (63.8 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Montenegro

Figures published by UNODC show that the rate at which children are detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions has fluctuated substantially between 2003 and 2014, but this is largely a result of the low absolute numbers of children in detention and that a small rise in the number of children detained dramatically affects the rate of detention.

2003: 2 (1.3 per 100,000)

2004: 3 (2 per 100,000)

2005: 4 (2..6 per 100,000)

2006: 1 (0.7 per 100,000)

2007: 3 (2 per 100,000)

2008: 9 (6 per 100,000)

2009: 9 (6 per 100,000)

2010: 7 (4.7 per 100,000)

2011: 9 (6.1 per 100,000)

2012: 9 (6.1 per 100,000)

2013: 2 (1.4 per 100,000)

2014: 5 (3.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Netherlands

Figures published by UNODC show a sustained fall in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2009.

2008: 793 (22.4 per 100,000)

2009: 674 (19.2 per 100,000)

2010: 655 (18.8 per 100,000)

2011: 549 (15.8 per 100,000)

2012: 545 (15.8 per 100,000)

2013: 473 (13.8 per 100,000)

2014: 461 (13.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Norway

Figures published by UNODC indicate slight fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Norway between 2003 and 2013, but show that the population of these facilities has remained at a very low rate, never exceeding 1.5 per 100,000 children.

2003: 11 (1 per 100,000)

2004: 10 (0.9 per 100,000)

2005: 11 (1 per 100,000)

2006: 7 (0.6 per 100,000)

2007: 7 (0.6 per 100,000)

2008: 5 (0.5 per 100,000)

2009: 8 (0.7 per 100,000)

2010: 8 (0.7 per 100,000)

2011: 10 (0.9 per 100,000)

2012: 16 (1.4 per 100,000)

2013: 8 (0.7 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Poland

Figures published by UNODC indicate that the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Poland rose sharply between 2004 and 2005, but has show a more gradual reduction since. Detention figures in 2014 were almost 40 percent of what they were in 2005.

2003: 3,598 (42.2 per 100,000)

2004: 3,420 (41.5 per 100,000)

2005: 7,268 (91 per 100,000)

2006: 7,206 (92.6 per 100,000)

2007: 6,517 (85.6 per 100,000)

2008: 5,759 (77.1 per 100,000)

2009: 5,570 (75.9 per 100,000)

2010: 4,850 (67.2 per 100,000)

2011: 4,365 (61.1 per 100,000)

2012: 4,153 (58.8 per 100,000)

2013: 3,569 (51.1 per 100,000)

2014: 3,016 (43.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Portugal

Figures published by UNODC show a general upward trend in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Portugal between 2003 and 2011, particularly sharply between 2010 and 2011. Since 2011, however, the number of children detained in these institutions has fallen sharply, by more than 30 percent in three years.

2003: 470 (24.1 per 100,000)

2004: 525  (26.6 per 100,000)

2005: 529 (27 per 100,000)

2006: 507 (25.8 per 100,000)

2007: not reported

2008: not reported

2009: 521 (26.8 per 100,000)

2010: 547 (28.5 per 100,000)

2011: 634 (33.4 per 100,000)

2012: 613 (32.8 per 100,000)

2013: 553 (30.1 per 100,000)

2014: 438 (24.2 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Romania

Figures published by UNODC have shown fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Romania since 2003, but the number of children detained in these facilities in 2014 is almost 40 percent of what it was at the high point in 2006.

2003: 655 (13.8 per 100,000)

2004: 569 (12.4 per 100,000)

2005: 864 (19.6 per 100,000)

2006: 756 (17.9 per 100,000)

2007: 538 (13.2 per 100,000)

2008: 431 (10.8 per 100,000)

2009: 470 (12 per 100,000)

2010: 459 (11.9 per 100,000)

2011: 450 (11.8 per 100,000)

2012: 444 (11.7 per 100,000)

2013: 512 (13.7 per 100,000)

2014: 316 (8.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Russian Federation

Figures published by UNODC show a dramatic decrease in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Russia over the last 10 years. The number of children detained in these facilities has fallen steadily year on year and as of 2014, was 17 percent of what it was in 2005.

2004: 18,578 (62.1 per 100,000)

2005: 18,907 (65.5 per 100,000)

2006: 15,786 (56.4 per 100,000)

2007: 14,141 (52 per 100,000)

2008: 11,486 (43.2 per 100,000)

2009: 7,819 (29.8 per 100,000)

2010: 5,756 (22 per 100,000)

2011: 4,439 (17 per 100,000)

2012: 3,896 (14.8 per 100,000)

2013: 3,357 (12.6 per 100,000)

2014: 3,224 (11.9 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    San Marino

The World Prison Brief reports that as of 2016, only one person was detained in the prison system in San Marino and this person was not a child.
 

    Serbia

Figures published by UNODC show fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2007 and 2014.

2007: 201 (9.9 per 100,000)

2008: 252 (12.7 per 100,000)

2009: 276 (14.2 per 100,000)

2010: 249 (13.1 per 100,000)

2011: 276 (14.7 per 100,000)

2012: 232 (12.5 per 100,000)

2013: 240 (13.1 per 100,000)

2014: 252 (14 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Slovakia

Figures published by UNODC show a rapid increase in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions from 2003 to 2005, but then a more gradual downward trend up to 2014.

2003: 106 (8.7 per 100,000)

2004: 202 (17.1 per 100,000)

2005: 239 (20.8 per 100,000)

2006: 182 (16.2 per 100,000)

2007: 193 (17.6 per 100,000)

2008: 167 (15.6 per 100,000)

2009: 157 (14.9 per 100,000)

2010: 140 (13.6 per 100,000)

2011: 132 (13 per 100,000)

2012:137 (13.6 per 100,000)

2013: 99 (10 per 100,000)

2014: 93 (9.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Slovenia

Figures published by UNODC show fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Slovenia between 2005 and 2014, but that the number of children detained in these facilities has remained at low levels.

2005: 7 (2 per 100,000)

2006: 7 (2 per 100,000)

2007: 9 (2.6 per 100,000)

2008: 12 (3.5 per 100,000)

209: 4 (1.2 per 100,000)

2010: 7 (2 per 100,000)

2011: 9 (2.6 per 100,000)

2012: 1 (0.3 per 100,000)

2013: 11 (3.1 per 100,000)

2014: 5 (1.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Spain

Figures published by UNODC show a rapid decline in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2010 and 2014, during which the number of children held in these facilities dropped by more than half.

2003: 1568 (20.9 per 100,000)

2004: 1529 (20.2 per 100,000)

2005: not reported

2006: not reported

2007: not reported

2008: not reported

2009: not reported

2010: 1485 (18.3 per 100,000)

2011: 1323 (16.2 per 100,000)

2012: 1152 (14.1 per 100,000)

2013: 957 (11.7 per 100,000)

2014: 736 (9.1 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Sweden

Figures published by UNODC show fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Sweden, but that the rate at which children are detained in these facilities has remained among the lowest in Europe.

2003: 2 (0.1 per 100,000)

2004: 1 (0.1 per 100,000)

2005: 13 (0.7 per 100,000)

2006: 14 (0.7 per 100,000)

2007: 11 (0.6 per 100,000)

2008: 15 (0.8 per 100,000)

2009: 6 (0.3 per 100,000)

2010: 15 (0.8 per 100,000)

2011: 7 (0.4 per 100,000)

2012: 12 (0.6 per 100,000)

2013: 10 (0.5 per 100,000)

2014: 9 (0.5 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Switzerland

Figures published by UNODC show fluctuations in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions in Switzerland, but that between 2005 and 2014, there was a general downward trend in the number of children held in these facilities.

2005: 72 (4.9 per 100,000)

2006: 52 (3.6 per 100,000)

2007: 54 (3.7 per 100,000)

2008: 72 (4.9 per 100,000)

2009: 54 (3.7 per 100,000)

2010: 45 (3.1 per 100,000)

2011: 29 (2 per 100,000)

2012: 54 (3.7 per 100,000)

2013: 30 (2 per 100,000)

2014: 25 (1.7 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Ukraine

Figures published by UNODC showed a sharp decline in the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions between 2003 and 2009, during which the number of children held in these facilities fell by more than 60 percent. UNODC has not published figures on child detention for the country since 2011.

2003: 2,403 (25.6 per 100,000)

2004: 2,519 (27.8 per 100,000)

2005: 2,121 (24.1 per 100,000)

2006: 1,641 (19.2 per 100,000)

2007: 1,256 (15 per 100,000)

2008: 1,053 (12.9 per 100,000)

2009: 927 (11.5 per 100,000)

2010: 1,434 (18.2 per 100,000)

2011: 868 (11 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    United Kingdom

    England and Wales

The Ministry of Justice and Youth Justice Board produce statistical bulletins published in January each year which include figures for the average population of people under the age of 18 in custody.

2009/10: 2,418

2010/11: 2,040

2011/12: 1,963

2012/13: 1,544

2013/14: 1,216

2014/15: 1,037

The Ministry of Justice also publishes monthly data on the number of children held in detention, which show that the number of children in detention has continued to fall since 2015.

Figures published by UNODC over the same period show the same trend in reducing the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions, but give lower numbers of children in these facilities. It is not clear why these figures differ, but the UNODC statistics may exclude children held on remand awaiting trial, the average population of which is around 240.

2003: 1,925 (16.4 per 100,000)

2004: 2,275 (19.3 per 100,000)

2005: 2,322 (19.7 per 100,000)

2006:2,439 (20.8 per 100,000)

2007: 2,428 (20.6 per 100,000)

2008: 2,525 (21.3 per 100,000)

2009: 2,120 (17.9 per 100,000)

2010: 1656 (13.9 per 100,000)

2011: 1,580 (13.3 per 100,000)

2012: 1,280 (10.6 per 100,000)

2013: 865 (7.1 per 100,000)

2014: 740 (6.1 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Northern Ireland

In November 2012, all people under the age of 18 in detention were moved to Woodlands Juvenile Justice Centre. Children detained in this centre do not appear in UNODC’s figures. Average population of Woodlands Juvenile Justice Centre are published in the reports of announced inspections conducted by the National Preventive Mechanism:

2007/8: 32

2008/9: 27

2009/10: 27

2010/11: 27

2011/12:28

2012/13: 29

2013/14: 28

Figures published by UNODC show the number of children detained in prisons, penal institutions and correctional institutions since 2005, but do not include the figures for Woodland Juvenile Justice Centre, which was established in January 2007 and became the only facility for the detention of children in November 2012.

2005: 57 (13.2 per 100,000)

2006: 54 (12.6 per 100,000)

2007: 61 (14.2 per 100,000)

2008: 41 (9.5 per 100,000)

2009: 18 (4.2 per 100,000)

2010: 17 (4 per 100,000)

2011: 4 (0.9 per 100,000)

2012: 0 (0 per 100,000)

2013: 0 (0 per 100,000)

2014: 0 (0 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.
 

    Scotland

The Scottish government publishes figures for the number of “offenders”, that is people convicted of a criminal offence, in custody on 30 June each year. The number of people reported as under the age of 18 by year are as follows:

2003: 170

2004: 191

2005: 197

2006: 225

2007: 221

2008: 202

2009: 205

2010: 157

2011: 128

2013: 78

These figures do not include the number of children held in pretrial detention.

Figures published by UNODC are significantly higher than those published by the Scottish government. This difference may be a result of Scotland’s definition of “young person” as a person under the age of 21. The figures produced by UNODC are much closer to the figures for “young persons” in detention than those under the age of 18.

2003: 547 (50.9 per 100,000)

2004: 820 (76.9 per 100,000)

2005: 908 (85.6 per 100,000)

2006: 1,005 (95.5 per 100,000)

2007: 1,040 (98.8 per 100,000)

2008: 1,021 (97 per 100,000)

2009: 1,023 (97.2 per 100,000)

2010: 866 (82.8 per 100,000)

2011: 780 (74.9 per 100,000)

2012: 690 (66.4 per 100,000)

2013: 566 (54.7 per 100,000)

2014: 532 (51.4 per 100,000)

These UNODC figures refer to the number of children detained on a specific day and exclude detention for non-criminal purposes.